April 2006 Newsletter


            In addition to the usual call for papers, news from our colleagues, notices, minutes of the annual meeting in Wolfville, and the Heggoy Prize announcement, this issue of the newsletter also includes an updated program for this year’s annual meeting in Dakar, Senegal.  Since the program continues to undergo minor revisions, members should consult the Society’s website (www.frenchcolonial.org) for the most up to date version.    Members interested in donating books to our host institution in Dakar should see page 10 for the relevant information.  Please remember that all participants in the annual meeting must register and be paid members of the society.  Those seeking room mates for the Dakar meeting can send their contact information to korosz@maine.edu.

            Finally, please check your mailing labels to ensure that your dues are up to date.  When filling in the membership form please make sure that you include your name, address and e-mail.  Members wishing to receive the newsletter electronically or who wish to be added to the online directory should send their contact information to korosz@maine.edu.


President’s Message


          During the past few months the final program for our upcoming Dakar meeting has been put in place. All the details can be found elsewhere in this Newsletter; for an updated program, please check the website (www.frenchcolonial.org) regularly. There you will also find the registration form to be sent in if you have not already done so. Please consider, too, bringing copies of your own or other publications to donate to the history or to other departments at our meeting’s host institution, the Université Cheikh Anta Diop. 

            Preparations are also well underway for our 2007 meeting in La Rochelle. More information, as well as the call for papers, will be forthcoming in the next few months. Looking further ahead, planning is moving ahead for our meetings in Quebec City (2008) and at the Executive Committee in Dakar we expect to make a decision about 2009. For 2010 and later, we welcome offers to host meetings, as well as suggestions of locations where members would like to convene.

            This is my final note as president. I want to thank the members of the Society for making my term both extremely enjoyable and a true learning experience. For helping me navigate during the past three years, I’d especially like to thank my immediate predecessor John Johnston, our secretary-treasurer Bill Newbigging, Newsletter editor and webmaster Ken Orosz, my successor Sue Peabody, her predecessor as vice-president Greg Waselkov, and minister without portfolio Philip Boucher. Together with the other members of the Executive, they ensure that the Society is in very good hands.

            I look forward to seeing many of you in Dakar and at our meetings in the years to come.


Robert DuPlessis



Alf Andrew Heggoy Book Prize, 2006-2007


          Each year the French Colonial Historical Society presents a book in honor of one of its founding members, Alf Andrew Heggoy.  Book prize recognition includes an award of US $350 for the best book published during the previous year dealing with the French colonial experience from the 16th to the 20th century.  Books from any academic discipline will be considered but they must approach the consideration of the French colonial experience from an historical perspective.  The deadline for this year is March 1, 2007.

            Applicants or their publishers should send three copies of books published in 2004 to the chairperson of the book prize committee: Eric Jennings, Department of History, University of Toronto, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G3, Canada (eric.jennings@utoronto.ca).

            The award will be announced at the annual conference of the French Colonial Historical Society in La Rochelle, France in May 2007.  Members of the Book Prize Committee are Owen White (University of Delaware), Peter Moogk (University of British Columbia), Eric Jennings, Chair (University of Toronto).



Colleagues at Work


          Mark Choate is working on a comparative history of European migration and imperial demographic settlements, especiall in the period 1880-1940.

            Julia Clancy-Smith recently published an article entitled “Women, Gender and Migration Along a Mediterranean Frontier: Pre-Colonial Tunisia, 1815-1870" in Gender and History vol. 17 no. 1 (April 2005): 62-92.

            Luca Codignola recently published entries on the “American Revolution;” “Treaty of Paris;” “Marquis Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière;” “Pierre-Joseph Céloron de Blainville;” Michel-Guillaume-Jean Crèvecoeur;” and “François Marbois, marquis de Barbé-Marbois” in Bill Marshall and Christina Johnston (eds) France and the Americas: Culture, Politics and History.  A Multidisciplinary Encyclopedia (Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 2005).  He is also the author of the “Préface;” “Chronologie;” and “Bibliographie” in Christopher Columbus, Relation du premier voyage entrepris par Christophe Colomb pour la découverte du Nouveau-Monde en 1492 (Montréal: Boréal, 2005).  Other recent publications include: “Francis Parkman’s Roman Experience (1844)” Quaderni d’italianistica.  Official Journal of the Canadian Society for Italian Studies XXVI, 1 (2005): 77-100; “How Wide is the Atlantic Ocean?  Larger and Larger,” Acadiensis XXXIV, 2 (Spring 2005); and “Missionaires français à Saint-Pierre et Miquelon à l’époque des révolutions (1763-1816): nombre, qualité, résaux.” La Société Historique Acadienne, Les Cahiers, XXXVI, 4 (2005): 140-203.

            Barbara Cooper is finishing a study of Protestants in majority Muslim Niger and launching a new project on the history of debates and discourses related to reproduction in French West Africa.

            James Covi is a graduate student in world history with specific interests in comparative colonial education.

            Robert DuPlessis published “Cloth and the Emergence of the Atlantic Economy,” in Peter A. Coclam (ed) The Atlantic Economy During the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (University of South Carolina Press, 2005) pp. 72-94.

            David Gardinier recently completed the third edition of his Historical Dictionary of Gabon to be published in 2006.

            Yasmeen Hanoosh is a graduate student in the University of Michigan’s Department of Near Eastern Studies researching (post) colonial Algerian literature, Middle Eastern minorities and collective memory/Identity and Language Ideology. 

            James Hunter presented a paper at the Society for Historical Archeology in St Louis on jettons from Huron village sites in Simcoe county, Ontario derived from French trading interests at Quebec c. 1610-1629.  He continues to research early French trade goods and material culture obtained by the Huron/Ouendot peoples of the early 17th century. 

            Anne-Laure Jaumouillié is a teaching assistant at the University of La Rochelle and conducts research on Kanah chiefs and French colonization in New Caledonia.  Her publications include “Les intermédiares, acteurs centraux des relations calédoniennes, 1878-1920" Actes du Colloque Pacific Historical Association (December 2005); “Notes d’information sur le role des natas de Maurice Leenhardt pendant la rébellion de 1917,” Annales d’Histoire Calédonienne, vol. 2 (forthcoming).

            Kendra Kennedy is a graduate student in historical archaeology at the University of West Florida in Pensacola working on French, British and Spanish interactions as well as the relationships between the French, native Americans and Africans represented in the archaeological record.

            Timothy Kent received the State History Award from the Historical Society of Michigan for his two volume work entitled Rendezvous at the Straits: Fur Trade and Military Activities at Fort de Buade and Fort Michilimackinac, 1669-1781.

            Herman Lebovics’ new collection of essays has been published as Imperialism and the Corruption of Democracies (Duke University Press, 2006).

            Russell Magnaghi is conducting research on the French in Michigan from Colonial Origins to the Present for Michigan State University Press’ Discovering the Peoples of Michigan series.

            Phyllis Martin’s 1995 book on Brazzaville (CUP), winner of the Alf Heggoy Memorial Book Prize, has been published in French as Loisirs et société à Brazzaville pendant l’ère coloniale (Paris: Karthala, 2005).  Two articles relating to her present research on Catholic women in Congo-Brazzaville have also been translated into French: “Vie et mort, pouvoir et vulnérabilité” contradictions quotidiennes à la mission de Loango (1883-1904),” Mémoire Spiritaine (Paris), no. 21 2005; and “Eloge de l’ordinaire: église, empire et genre à travers la vie de Mère Marie-Michelle Dédié (Sénégal, Congo, 1882-1931)” Le Fait Missionaire (Lausanne) forthcoming 2006.

            Céline Melisson is working on administration in the French colonies, particularly the role of naval officers, from 1663 to 1770.

            Sue Peabody recently gave lectures at Harvard University’s Center for Atlantic History, the Universidad de Rio de Janeiro, and the University of Toronto Caribbean History Series.  Her book, Slavery, Freedom and the Law in the Atlantic World (co-edited with Keila Grinberg), will be published by Bedford Books in Fall 2006.

            Carolyn Podruchn’s book, Making the Voyageur World: Traveling and Trading in the North American Fur Trade, will be published in 2006 by the University of Nebraska Press as part of their series “France Overseas: Studies in Empire and Decolonization.”  The series is also co-published in Canada by the University of Toronto Press.

            Timothy Pearson’s research interests include Religion and culture in New France.

            Marie Rodet is a PhD candidate in African Studies at the University of Vienna where she is completing a dissertation entitled “Female Migration in French Sudan (1900-1945).”  Since Winter 2005 she has been part of an international research network entitled “France Overseas” where she works on the interplay between African women and the colonial legal system in French Sudan.

            Celine Ronsseray is a 4th year doctoral student in history at the Université de la Rochelle.  She is working on the administrative staff in French Guiana during the 18th century.  Her publications include: “Etre medecin du roi dans une colonie d’Amérique au XVIIIe siecele: la contribution de Jacques-François Artres à la connaissance de la Guyane,” Outre-Mers: Revue d’Histoire 93, 1 (2005): 197-219.





          The Historical Foundation of Canada has recently launched the Black History Canada portal.  The site provides users with organized, annotated and vetted resources about Canada’s Black history.  The portal is located at www.histori.ca/blackhistory.

             University History announces a new web portal of interest to historians.  Created in conjunction with the University of Canterbury School of History, New Zealand, the portal aims to make the best online resources in history available to students and academic alike.  The portal can be found on the web at  http://www.universityhistory.org/

            The Historical Society will be hosting its 5th annual conference from June 1-4 at the William and Ida Friday center in Chapel Hill, NC.  This year’s conference is entitled “Globalization, Empire, and Imperialism in Historical Perspective.”  For more information about the conference and its program please see http://www.bu.edu/historic/conference06.html

            Exeter University’s Centre for the Study of War, State, and Society will be hosting a conference on “The French Colonial Mind: Mental Maps of Empire and Colonial Policy Making.”  The conference will take place April 12-14, 2007 in Exeter, England.  For additional information about the conference please contact Martin Thomas at Martin.C.Thomas@exeter.ac.uk

            The editors of the Journal de la Société des américanistes are pleased to announce that the journal, which is devoted to Amerindian societies and cultures,  can now be found online at http://jsa.revues.org/ .

            On May 26th, 2003 a Huron/Ouendat ossuary was accidentally discovered beside the Huronia Museum located in Little Lake Park in Mindland, Ontario.  Such burials, described by French Jesuit priest P. Jean de Brebeuf, SJ in May 1636, shed considerable light on burial practices.   Following advice from the First Nations, the site will provide an educational opportunity to explore and develop respect for First Nations burials and burial practices.  On October 17, 2003 the disturbed remains were reburied and the site marked as an important Huron ossuary - one of only three partially disturbed ossuaries known to exist.  For more information contact Jamie Hunter, Director/Curator of the Huronia Museum at 705-526-2844 or via e-mail at director@huroniamuseum.com

            The European Science Foundation has a small fund to support research as part of its program on Representations of the Past: the Writing of National Histories in Europe.  Applications are due April 30, 2006.  For application information please see





Call for Papers


          The Gulf Coast Colonialist Colloquium invites scholars to attend its 4th annual meeting to be held at Tulane University, February 16-17, 2007.  The meeting’s theme is “Colonial Life in the Americas” and is designed to bring together scholars working on topics dealing with every day life in the colonial Latin America and the Caribbean.  For more information contact Robinson A. Herrera, GCCC Program Committee Chair, Department of History, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2200 or via e-mail at rherrera@mailer.fsu.edu

            Appel à Contributions: 1ère journée d’études des doctorants en sciences humaines et sociales, La Rochelle, Jeudi 8 juin 2006 sur les  “Acteurs et agents locaux de la colonisatin française: méthodes, sources, nouveaux enjeux de la recherche en France (XVIIème-XIXème siècles).”  Cette journée pluridisciplinaire est organisée principalement à l’attention des docorants et jeunes chercheurs.   Addresses contacts: Anne-Laure Jaumouillé (ajaumoui@univ-lr.fr) ou Céline Ronsseray (celine.ronsseray@univ-lr.fr), Faculté de Lettres Langues Arts et Sciences Humaines, 1 Parvis Fernand Braudel, 1700 La Rochelle, France.

            The “Integration and Conflict in the Upper Guinea Coast” Research Group at the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology in Halle, Germany is seeking papers for a conference entitled “The Powerful Presence of the Past: Historical Dimensions of Integration and Conflict in the Upper Guinea Coast, West Africa” to be held at the Institute October 18-20, 2006.  Travel expenses will be refunded and accommodation provided for those invited to present a paper.  Please send abstracts of 500 words or less by May 19, 2006 to Dr. Jacqueline Knörr, Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, Advokatenweg 36, 06114 Halle, Germany or via e-mail at knoerr@eth.mpg.de.  Additional information on the conference can be found on the web at http://www.eth.mpg.de/events/current/pdf/1140085803-02.pdf

            The History Department of the University of Texas at Arlington and the Transatlantic History Student Organization are seeking papers for the 7th Annual Graduate Student Symposium on Transatlantic History.   Graduate students in history and other disciplines are invited to submit proposals (300 words) and a short cv by May 31, 2006 via e-mail to Paul Rutschmann (prutsch@uta.edu) and Dr. Thomas Adam (adam@uta.edu).  Selected participants will receive a small stipend to help offset travel expenses.

            The Society of Early Americanists (hereafter SEA) invites the FCHS to propose a panel for its fifth biennial conference, which will take place on June 7-10, 2007, at Williamsburg, VA, in conjunction with the 13th annual conference of the OIEAHC, or Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture. The FCHS is to come up with one panel (i.e. two to three papers with a chair). Given the focus of the SEA and the OIEAHC, our panel needs to relate to the Americas and be of interest to specialists who belong to the two above-named organizations. A.J.B. (John) Johnston is the FCHS contact person for the panel. So if you have an idea for a paper, or for an entire session, please contact John at john.johnston@pc.gc.ca.  One proposal has been received thus far, relating to the lieux de la mémoire of the United States and Canada that have French colonial themes. Though June 2007 sounds like a long way off, John would like to have your ideas and proposals over the coming winter so that the proposed panel is organized by June 2006.

            The editors of African Identities and DePaul University’s Center for Black Diaspora are seeking contributors for a special issue entitled African Cities: Colonial Specululm and Post-Colonial Urbanism.     Contributions dealing with the physical and social construction of African cities are especially welcome.  Submit article manuscripts of 6500-8000 words (including notes and references) in hard copy and on disk in Microsoft Word to Fassil Demissie, Guest Editor, Public Policy Studies, DePaul University, 2320 North Clifton Ave, Rm 150.1, Chicago IL 60614. For more information on submission guidelines e-mail Professor Demissie at fdemissi@depaul.edu

            The Association for Canadian Studies invites paper submissions for its annual conference to be held October 21-22, 2006 in Vancouver, BC  on the theme of Diasporas and Discovery.   Conference organizers will accept proposals until July 1, 2006.  Interested scholars should submit abstracts (250 words) and a short (100 word) biographical statement as word attachments or in the body of an e-mail to james.ondrick@acs.aec.ca.  Please place the words “Vancouver Conference” in the subject line of the e-mail.  The Association for Canadian Studies will cover travel and registration costs for individual presenters at the conference.




Minutes of the Annual Meeting


French Colonial Historical Society, Annual General Meeting

4 June, 2005  Acadia University, Wolfville Nova Scotia


Nota bene: The meeting was held after lunch in the dining room of the Wheelock Building.


            Present:  Jeremy Rich; Simon Duteil; Vanine Profizi; Stéphanie Samson, Ryme Seferdjeli; Christelle Taraud; Amaury Lorin; James Pritchard; Suzanne Pritchard; Fred Thorpe; Barry Moody; John Johnston; John Reid; Dale Standen; Dale Miquelon; Nancy Morton; Bernie Moltz; Gretchen Harvey; Luca Codignola; Amelle Habon; Christopher Bolander; Catherine Hodier; MaryAnne DeWolf; Emily Burton; Caroline-Isabelle Caron; Thomas Peace; Carolyn Podruchny; Anne Marie Lane Jonah; Reine Claude Grondin; Jonathan Gosnell; Benoît Grenier; Alain Laberge; Maureen O’Meara; Robert Forster; Elborg Forster; Heather Lundine; Mary Boucher; Philip Boucher; Michael Nassaney; Jennifer Powers; Bill Shorrock; Pat Galloway; Paulo La Porte; Linda Waselkov; Greg Waselkov; Ken Donovan; Earle Lockerby; Marc Lavoie; David Christianson; Rebecca Duggan; Sandy Balcom; Rob Ferguson; Kwaku Gyasi; Leslie Choquette; Bob DuPlessis; Spencer Segalla; Fred Quinn; Owen White; Eyal Ginio; Ruth Ginio; Bill Newbigging.


President’s Message:

            DuPlessis:  The Executive met on Wednesday afternoon at the Beveridge Arts Centre and the good news is that we are solvent.  Thanks to John Johnston and Barry Moody.


Alf Heggoy Book Prize for 2004

            DuPlessis: Very happy to announce that the winner of this year’s Alf Heggoy Book Prize is Londa Schiebinger, Plants and Empire: Colonial Bioprospecting in the Atlantic World. (Harvard University Press).  There was an unprecedented number of submissions to the Heggoy Prize Committee – 14 – and they were all truly phenomenal.  [Please note: since the Acadia AGM of the FCHS Plants and Empire also won the 2005 Prize in Atlantic History of the AHA.]

            DuPlessis then read the email:  “It is certainly a cliché for a prize committee to comment upon the difficulty of selecting a winner among the many fine nominees in a given year. Yet, I must insist that, in my four years of service on the Heggoy Book Prize committee, this year’s selection has been especially challenging, due to the very high number of truly exceptional submissions. We had fourteen nominees in total (a record during my tenure on the committee), several from some of the most prestigious and specialized presses in Canada, England, France, and the United States. The quantity and quality of the submissions only highlight the degree to which the field of French Colonial History has really come into its own.

       Many of this year’s nominees challenge our preconceptions about what, in fact, constitutes French colonial history. Whereas, at one time, the field might be self-evidently taken as the study of Frenchmen (their lives and institutions) in their overseas colonies, this year’s submissions – more than any in the recent past – ask us to reexamine the French imperial experience from the outside in, by privileging the perspectives of the people indigenous – or forcibly transported – to the regions where French colonists settled, conquered and ruled. Perhaps most revealingly, several of this year’s nominated books call into question an earlier commonsense division between the French metropole as Hexagon and its overseas colonies by examining the political and cultural resistence between peripheral regions (the Camargue, the Larzac) and Parisian centrality.

       Yet this year’s winner, Londa Schiebinger’s Plants and Empire: Colonial Bioprospecting in the Atlantic World (Harvard), clearly stands out for its originality and elegance. A groundbreaking work in Atlantic history, environmental history and the history of science, Plants and Empire follows a single plant about which very little was previously known or written, Merian's peacock flower, decoding its many colonial connections. Schiebinger traces knowledge of the plant from its discovery and use by indigenous and enslaved women in the West Indies as an abortifacient, into the written records of French and other European colonists (Poincy, Descourtilz, Merian, Sloane), to Europe, where the exotic plant was happily cultivated but where knowledge of its capacity to end pregnancy disappeared. In this way, Shiebinger asks us to consider the ways that science and empire privilege certain knowledge, while allowing others to become lost in a self-induced "ignorance."

       The selection of this book as winner of the Heggoy Prize for "the best book ... dealing with the French colonial experience from the 16th to the 20th century" will no doubt be controversial, because of its subject matter, argument and scope. By addressing the imperialism of resource identification and extraction (in Schiebinger’s neologism: bioprospecting) and the controversial subject of abortion, Schiebinger’s detailed analysis of the early modern natural sciences implicitly critiques many of presentist positions as universal or eternal. Because her argument traces not only the direct transmission of knowledge but also absences, forgetting, and silences, some will criticize this work as speculative but, as Schiebinger clearly shows, there are limits to positivist history; through diligent research and careful interrogation of sources, we can catch glimpses of the worlds beyond the records produced by colonial participants. Finally, although Plants and Empire goes beyond the French colonial empire to embrace an "extended Caribbean ... from Jamestown, Virginia to Bahia, Brazil," its findings on Martinique, Guadeloupe and Guiana alone are startling.

       In short, Londa Schiebinger’s Plants and Empire is an eminently readable, meticulously argued, extremely original work of history that deserves to be read widely – by scholars of the French colonies, yes, but also by students, historians of science, of gender relations, of slavery, of the environment, of empire, of the Atlantic world. In recognition of the excellence of this book and in the interest of recommending it to members of the French Colonial Historical Society and a much wider audience, the prize committee celebrates Plants and Empire with the 2005 Heggoy Book Prize.


W.J. Eccles Essay Prize for 2004

            Galloway:  The W.J. Eccles Prize is awarded to Michelle Cheyne for “Pyracmond, ou les Créoles: L’Articulation d’une hiérarchie des roles raciaux sur la scène française sous la Restauration.”  The Eccles Prize is awarded to the paper judged to be the best submitted to French Colonial History by a student or recent graduate.  

            Michelle Cheyne’s well-written and carefully structured paper tracks a pedestrian opera manuscript as it moves through the censorship mill in Restoration-era France. She explains why this opera was found unacceptable in its original form and was subsequently transformed in such a way that it was drained of ideological and emotional content comprehensible to its intended audience. The opera, "Pyracmond, ou les Créoles," closed after only a few performances.

            Cheyne takes the surviving version of the libretto, together with the comments of censors and references in the press, and from these sources teases out an analysis of French unease over questions of empire and colony, monarchy and republic and troubled French assumptions about hierarchy, in particular, racial hierarchy. By replacing a black, colonial protagonist with an Arab one and by shifting the scene of action from the Antilles to Madagascar, the libretto's revision avoided any encouragement for the audience to think about the metropolitan/colonial, white/black dichotomies that existed in Restoration France and instead found a villain for the piece outside the confines of the French cultural/imperial sphere in the person of an Arab, savage but also outlandish, irrelevant, and unchallenging. The documentary materials here analyzed are for Cheyne the pieces of a puzzle, a puzzle with many gaps, which this historian has fitted together with great intellectual dexterity in this tour de force of historical investigation and explanation.


French Colonial History

            DuPlessis introduced Leslie Choquette as the new Editor of the Society’s journal French Colonial History.

            Choquette: I encourage everyone to submit papers for French Colonial History.  We are no longer following a strict “Proceedings” format and papers presented at Toulouse, DC, or Acadia are all welcome for Volume 7.  Please note too that the FCHS Executive has also determined that papers not presented at the Annual Meetings of the FCHS are also to be published in the French Colonial History but they must meet the same deadlines and format.  This is a logistical requirement of our partner Michigan State University Press.  Volume 6 will be published shortly.  French Colonial History is now part of Project Muse.



H-French Colonial

            DuPlessis introduced Jeremy Rich who is instrumental in launching H-French Colonial. 

            Rich: A number of people are involved, particularly Ibra Sene.  Volunteers are needed to edit the list and to act as book review editors. 


Dakar 2006

            Kwaku Gyasi and Phillip Boucher made presentations on the 2006 Meeting to be held in Dakar.

            Gyasi: The meeting will be held from 15-22 May at the Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar.  There is a package being arranged and trips are planned to the Ile Gorée and to the old capital of Saint Louis.

            Boucher:  Pleased to announce Kwaku’s tenure and promotion.   The theme of the Dakar conference is “Culture and Colonization in French Africa” but as usual papers on all aspects of French Colonial history will be welcomed.  15 October is the deadline for submissions.  Pre-1800 papers are to be sent to Phillip Boucher; post-1800 to Ken Orosz; and African papers to Dr. Ibrahim Seck. 

            Rich:  Noted the need for medicine and vaccinations.

            DuPlessis:  Advised members to go to the CDC website.


La Rochelle 2007

            DuPlessis: Has spoken – mid-May – with the Dean of the Faculty of Arts.  The Meeting will take place on the new campus of the Université de La Rochelle.


Québec 2008

            Laberge: Meeting will be held in the third week of May.  Conference will be held in Old Quebec, but there will be a lot of people celebrating the 400th anniversary.  There should be no problem with finding funding for the same reason.



            DuPlessis: Invited people to enjoy the rest of their stay in Wolfville and on the beautiful campus of Acadia University.




Books for the University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar


            The History Department at the University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, hosts for our annual meeting this year, would be pleased to receive donations of history books in French and/or English, as well as history films in any format (DVD, VHS, etc.). Other departments in the University would also welcome donations.

The Society therefore suggests that participants bring copies of books that they have published, together with other books that they would like to donate, to the conference in May.


            Le Département d’Histoire de l’Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, hôte de notre conférence cette année, accueillera avec plaisir des livres d’histoire en français et/ou en anglais et des films historiques à tout format (DVD, VHS, etc.). D’autres départements de l’Université accueilleront également des dons.  Par conséquent, la Société propose aux intervenants à la conférence d’apporter avec eux des exemplaires de leurs propres ouvrages, de même que d’autres livres appropriés pour dons.


French Colonial Historical Society/Société d’Histoire Coloniale Française

32e Conférence Annuelle/32nd Annual Conference

Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar 17-20 Mai/May 2006


Thème : Culture et Colonisation en Afrique Française/Colonization and Culture in French Africa


Programme revu et corrigé/Updated Program


Tuesday, May 16 / Mardi 16 Mai 

7:00-9:00 PM. Jardins du Rectorat : Cocktail d’ouverture/Opening Cocktail.

Présidence : Le Recteur de l’UCAD de Dakar/ The Chancelor of UCAD

Mots de bienvenue :

-          L’Ambassadeur de France au Sénégal

-          L’Ambassadeur des États Unis d’Amérique au Sénégal

-          L’Ambassadeur du Canada au Sénégal

-          Le Directeur de la Région Afrique de l’AUF

-          Robert DuPlessis, Président de la French Colonial Historical Society

-          Ousmane Sène, Directeur du Centre de Recherche Ouest Africain (WARC)

-          Monsieur le Directeur des Archives Nationales du Sénégal

-          Ibrahima Thioub, Chef du Département d’Histoire


Wednesday, May 17 / Mercredi 17 Mai (Inscription/Registration)

9:00 – 10:00 AM. Séance Plénière/Plenary Session, UCAD II

Conférence Inaugurale/Keynote Speech: Amadou Mahtar Mbow, Ancien Directeur Général de l’UNESCO : Colonisation et Culture/ Colonization and Culture.

Président/Chair : Le Recteur de l’UCAD de Dakar/ The Chancelor of UCAD.


10:00 – 10:30 AM.   Pause


10:30 – 12:00 AM.Séance Plénière/Plenary Session, UCAD II

Panel 1: Identification d’un Empire Colonial/Identifying a Colonial Empire

Président/Chair : Pr. Boubacar Barry, UCAD

-          Robert DuPlessis, Swarthmore College. “Defining a French Atlantic Empire: Some Material Culture Evidence.”

-          G. Wesley Johnson, Brigham Young University:     Senegal:  Pilot Colony for French Black African Politics.

-          Ousmane Sène, Directeur du West African Research Center : ”Senghor, chantre de la Négritude : aux origines étaient les Pangol”.

-          Saliou Mbaye, Ancien Directeur des Archives Nationales du Sénégal : ”Les Archives de l’AOF : une Mémoire Partagée”.


12:00 – 2:00 PM.  Déjeuner / Lunch

  2:00 – 3:30 PM. Panels concurrents

Panel 2: La France à la rencontre de l’Afrique Occidentale /The Encounter of France and West Africa.

Président/Chair : Geoffrey Parker, Andreas Dorpalen Professor of History, The Ohio State University

-          Assan Sarr, Michigan State University, “The French Occupation of Albreda and British commerce along The Gambia River c1681-1857”.

-          Ousmane Traoré, Université de la Sorbonne Paris IV. “Marge de Manœuvre et Pouvoir de Décision des Souverains Africains dans le Système des Relations Internationales, Transatlantiques et dans L’Evolution du Capitalisme Moderne en Afrique 1715-1800.”

-          Kalidou Diallo, UCAD, Dakar : De la chefferie traditionnelle à l’administration républicaine : le cas du Fuuta Tooro 1860-1980.


Panel 3: Race, Identité et Colonisation/Race, Identity, and Colonization.

Président/Chair : Amadou Aly Dieng, Chercheur, Economiste.

-          Carole Reynaud Paligot, Chercheur associé à l'Université de Franche-Comté. Races et colonies : usages coloniaux de la pensée raciale de la fin du 19e siècle.

-          Pape Chérif Bertrand Bassène, Université Bretagne Sud, “Colonisation française et ethnicité en Sénégambie: le cas de la Casamance.”

-          Daouda Loum, Département d’Anglais, UCAD, Dakar : Métis et Métissage : l’éclairage Romanesque en Miroir“.

-          Reine-Claude Grondin, Paris I-Sorbonne et Université de Limoges, “L’identité régionale au Prisme de la Colonisation.  Fin 19e-1920”.


Panel 4 : Race, Identité et Colonisation/Race, Identity, and Colonization.

Président/Chair : Sue Peabody, Associate Professor of History Washington State University Vancouver.

-          Scot Tolbert Allen, U.S. Air Force Academy: Origins of the Mission Civilisatrice:  France’s Civilizing Action in Lamartine’s Voyage en Orient (1835).

-          Marylee Crofts, Bentley College. “Claire de Kersaint’s 1823 OURIKA: Race and Gender in Assimilation”.

-          Marian A. Johnson, Brigham Young University: "The Signare Legacy: Senegalese Women of Independent Means".


Panel 5: La France, la Méditerranée, l’Océan Indien et le Pacifique/France, the Mediterranean Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Pacific Ocean.

Président/Chair : Robert DuPlessis, Swarthmore College.

-          Claudio Minca, University of Newcastle, “Re-enchanting Morocco: A ‘Real’ Journey Through Travel Narratives.” (19th century).

-          Isa Blumi, American University of Sharjah, Limitations of French Power in the Red Sea 1870-1908.

-          Mark Choate, Brigham Young University, “Politics and Perception in the European Settlement of Tunisia:  the French Colony vs. the Italian Colony”

-          Mary Ellen Birkett, Smith College, “France in the Pacific:  A Case Study”.


3:30 – 4:00 PM. Pause

4:00 – 5:30 PM. Panels concurrents

Panel 6: La France et l’Hémisphère Occidental 1/France and the Western Hemisphere 1
Président/Chair : Philip Boucher

-          Carolyn Podruchny, History Department, York University, “The Long Journey of the Turtle Who Wanted to Fly: Oral Motifs and Cultural Exchange in the Fur Trade.”

-          Ibrahima Seck, Département d’Histoire, Université Cheikh Anta Diop : “Africains, Acadiens et Germaniques à la Rencontre de la Louisiane Française“.

-          John Savage, Lehigh University, “Poisoning Crimes:  Perceptions of the Slave Poisoner in Martinique and the Metropole during the Restoration and July Monarchy”.

-          Nathalie Dessens, University of Toulouse, “Letters from New Orleans“.


Panel 7: “Extremely Dangerous Suspects:  Missionaries, African Christians and Colonial Ambivalence in 19th and 20th Century West Africa”.

Chairs: Barbara Cooper, Rutgers University.

-          Elizabeth Foster, Princeton University: “Catholics in the Republic’s Empire: The Catholic Mission and Electoral Politics in the Four Communes of Senegal, 1863-1905”.

-          Hilary Jones, Macalester College: Protestants and French Colonialism in Senegal 1863-1914.

-          Barbara Cooper, Rutgers University: “An Extremely Dangerous Suspect”: French Colonial Attitudes Toward Protestant Missionaries in West Africa under Vichy and Beyond”.

Discutant/ Discussant  : Rachel Jean-Baptiste, State University of New York.

Panel 8: Nationalisme et Décolonisation 1/Nationalism and Decolonization 1.

Président/Chair : Mbaye Thiam, Directeur EBAD, UCAD, Dakar

-          Babacar M’Baye, Evergreen State College: Marcus Garvey’s Influence on French West Africa’s Decolonization Struggle.

-          Harry Gamble, College of Wooster, “Léopold Senghor and the Popular Front:  Negritude and the Reframing of Educational Reform.”

-          Allison Drew, University of York (UK), “Rural Protest and Communist Party Responses in French Colonial Algeria during the Inter-War Years.”

-          Falilou NDIAYE, Maître de Conférences, Départements de Lettres Modernes, UCAD, Dakar, Discours littéraire «africain» et propagande coloniale : entre adhésion et contestation.


6:30 PM. Réception offerte aux conférenciers par le Doyen de la Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines.


Thursday, May  18 / Jeudi 18 Mai


8:30 – 10:00 AM. Panels concurrents

Panel 9: Stratégies Coloniales et Réponses Locales 1/ Colonial Strategies and Local Response 1.

Président/Chair : Cheikh Faty Faye, UCAD, Dakar

-          Addo Mahamane, Université Abdou Moumouni, Niger : Les mécanismes de légitimation du pouvoir dans la colonie du Niger (1922-1958).

-          Mamoudou Sy, Docteur en histoire, Espionnage et Pouvoir Colonial en Sénégambie au 19e Siècle.

-          Mouhamadou Moustapha Sow, Professeur d’Histoire-Géographie. Encadrement colonial et politique des chefs au Fouladou : Abdoul Diallo, chef de canton (1918-1939) : histoire d’une reconversion.

-          Abderrahmane Ngaïdé, UCAD : Tribulations Coloniales et Duplicité Indigène; Jeux de pouvoirs et Domination en Haute Casamance.


Panel 10: Colonisation et Religion 1/Colonization and Religion 1

Président/Chair : Saliou Kandji, Islamologue

-          Mahaman Alio, Université Abdou Moumouni, Niger: Colonisation, Islam et Frontières: la Gestion de l’Islam Transfrontalier par l’Administration Française au Niger (1890-1945).

-          El Hadji Samba DIALLO, EHESS, “Le Rôle de l’Administration française dans les conflits de succession au sein de la Tijāniyya nord-africaine: situations locales et répercussions chez les marabouts sénégalais (1840-1956).

-          Ngodi  Etanislas, Chercheur  IGRAC, Université  Marien  Ngouabi : “Rôle  et  Place  des  Missions  Chrétiennes  dans le  Transfert  Culturel  en  Afrique  Francophone“.

-          Hélène Grandhomme, Université de Nantes, Connaissance de l’Islam et Pouvoir Colonial,  L’exemple de la France au Sénégal : le savoir au service du politique“.

-          Ndèye Mbeugou Ka, Université Lille 3 Charles de Gaulle : “Les relations entre le pouvoir politique et la classe maraboutique, de 1960 à nos jours“.

Discutant/ Discussant  : Abbé Léon Diouf, Archidiocèse de Dakar.


Panel 11: Les Femmes face au Système Colonial/Women Facing the Colonial System

Président/Chair : Penda Mbow, UCAD, Dakar

-          Micheline Lessard, University of Ottawa, Department of History, " 'Cet ignoble trafic': The Kidnapping and Sale of Vietnamese Women and Girls in French Indochina, 1890-1925".

-          Marie Rodet, University of Vienna (Austria) : "Le délit d’abandon de domicile conjugal » ou l’invasion du pénal colonial dans les jugements des « tribunaux indigènes » au Soudan Français (1900-1945)".

-          Ibrahima Ndiaye, Maître de Conférences, École Supérieure Polytechnique, Centre de Thiès : “Femme et violence coloniale dans : « Femme nue, Femme noire », « The Venus Hottentot » et « Ces dames de silex »“.


10:00-10:30 AM. pause

10:30-12:00 AM. Panels concurrents

Panel 12 : Éducation et Culture/Education and Culture

Président/Chair : Abdoul Sow, UCAD, Dakar.

-          Amadou Fall, UCAD, Dakar: L’Éducation Coloniale: Assimilation ou Adaptation ?

-          James Covi, Washington State University, “French Colonial Education Policy in West Africa:  A Global Comparative Perspective”

-          Chérif Daha Ba, UCAD, Dakar : Méri, un Village de Nomades à l’École Française.

-          Judith DeGroat, St. Lawrence University: Ambiguous Opportunities: North American Students and Experiential Education in the Francophone World.

Panel 13: La France et l’Hémisphère Occidental 2/France and the Western Hemisphere 2

Président/Chair : Ndiouga Benga, UCAD, Dakar

-          Colin Coates, York University, Canada. “The Presence of Louis XIV in New France”.

-          Jean-François Brière, State University of New York/Albany: Du Sénégal aux Antilles:  Gaspard-Théodore Mollien en Haiti 1825-1831.

-          Kenneth Donovan, Cape Breton University,  Slavery and Freedom in Ile Royale: A North Atlantic Perspective, 1713-1758”.

-          A.J.B. Johnston, Parks, Canada, Atlantic Service Centre/Centre de services de l'Atlantique : "Défricheurs de l'eau: Acadian Land Reclamation in a Global Context."


Panel 14: Santé et Environnement 1/ Health and Environment 1

Président/Chair : Charles Becker, CNRS-Centre d'Etudes Africaines, Réseau sénégalais "Droit, Ethique, Santé".

-          Mor Ndao, UCAD, Dakar, “Colonisation et Politique de Santé Maternelle et Infantile au Sénégal (1905-1960) “.

-          Alioune Badara Kandji, Assistant, Département d’Anglais, U.C.A.D : « Enfance et Ordre Colonial dans la Fiction de Jamaïca Kincaid, Jean Rhys et Simone Shwarz Bart ».

-          Evelyne Combeau-Mari, Université de La Réunion: “Le Sport Colonial à Madagascar (1896 -1960) “.

-          Abdoul Wahid KANE, Assistant à l’INSEPS-UCAD, Dakar : “La Diffusion et l’Appropriation des Pratiques Sportives Modernes  dans la Société Sénégalaise  Coloniale (1920-1960) “.


12:00 – 2:00 PM. Déjeuner / Lunch


2:00 – 3:30 PM. Panels concurrents

Panel 15: Stratégies Coloniales et Réponses Locales 2/ Colonial Strategies and Local Response 2.
Président/Chair : Ibrahima Thioub, UCAD, Dakar

-          Ibra Sène, PhD Candidate, Michigan State University: Imprisonment and the Colonial Society in Senegal: Inside the Prison of Saint-Louis (ca.1860- ca. 1940) “.

-          Babacar Ba, Docteur en histoire : La genèse de la prison coloniale : un carcéral de conquête.

-          Sokhna Sané, Docteur en histoire : “Le contrôle de la circulation des armes à feu et des munitions en Afrique occidentale française : 1834 à 1958“.

-          Ousmane Guèye, Professeur, Département de Philosophie, UCAD, Dakar : "Droits de l’Homme et Pratique Historique : le Code de l’Indigénat".

-          Martin Klein, Professor Emeritus, Department of History, University of Toronto: “Slavery and the French Colonial Administration in Senegal and the Soudan, 1848 to 1914”.


Panel 16: Colonisation et Religion 2/Colonization and Religion 2

Président/Chair : Mamadou Fall, UCAD, Dakar.

-                 Ken Orosz, Department of Social Sciences and Business, University of Maine at Farmington: “Presbyterian Missionary responses to French language policy in Cameroon”.

-          Irit Back, The Open University, Israel, History Department:   Francophone and Anglophone Postcolonies:  Sufis and Islamists in Senegal and Nigeria.

-          Keren Rouche, New York University, “Projecting Algerian Judaism, formulating a political identity:  Zionism in Algeria during the Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962)”.

-          Amanda Sackur, London Metropolitan University, “Extravagant Hopes and Exaggerated Disappointment: A French experiment in religious assimilation”

Panel 17: Santé et Environnement 2/ Health and Environment 2

Président/Chair : Babacar Fall, UCAD

-          William Gallois, Department of History, Roehampton University, London, “Ethics in Colonial Algerian Medicine“.

-          Matthieu Fintz, CEDEJ, Cairo: “The fate of the material culture of tropical medicine in Africa in the aftermath of World War Two. An appraisal from the malaria eradication schemes“.

-          Andrew Clark, University of North Carolina Wilmington, “Environmental Decline and Ecological Response in Colonial West Africa“.


3:30-4:00 PM. Pause

4:00-5:00 Panels concurrents

Panel 18:  Engendering the Educational Mission in Nineteenth Century Africa/Aux Sources de l’École Coloniale: les Missions Catholiques.

Président/Chair: Odile Goerg, Université Paris-7 Denis Diderot

-          Sarah Curtis, San Francisco State University, “The Education of a Missionary: Anne-Marie Javouhey in West Africa (1820s).

-          Julia Clancy-Smith, University of Arizona, “Catholic Missionaries in a Pre-Colonial Muslim State, Tunisia, c. 1840-1881”.

-          Rebecca Rogers, Université Marc Bloch, Strasbourg, “Travel and Cultural Contact in an Imperial Context:  British Feminists, French Teachers and Algerian Girls in the XIXth Century”.


Panel 19:  Interwar Colonialism, from West Africa to Paris/Les Relations Métropole-Colonies entre les Deux Guerres.

Président/Chair : Alice Conklin, Ohio State University.

-          Jennifer Anne Boittin, Pennsylvania State University, “West Africans in 1920s and 1930s’ Paris: Intersections between Politics and the Culture of Exoticism”.

-          Elizabeth Foster, Princeton University, “Cooperation and Conflict:  The Catholic Mission and the Colonial Administration in Interwar Senegal”.

-          Lotfi Ben Rejeb, University of Ottawa, “American Apologists for French Imperialism in North Africa”.


Panel 20: Péninsule Indochinoise/Indochine Peninsula

Président/Chair : Pr. Abdoulaye Bathily, UCAD

-          Michael G. Vann, History Department, California State University, Punishment as a Pageant of Power: The Pedagogical Execution in Colonial Indochine.

-          David Gordon, Bronx Community College, A New Co-Prosperity Sphere: Vietnam, France and China, 1940-1950.

-          Mamadou Fall, UCAD, Dakar : Entre universalisme et colonialisme: les péchés d'empire en Indochine française/Fog of Empire between Universalism and colonialism, the Indochina case.


18:00-19:00. Wets African Research Center : Réunion du comité exécutif de la Société ’Histoire Coloniale Française/Meeting of the Executive Comittee of the French Colonial Historical Society.

19:30. Réception offerte aux conférenciers par le Directeur du Centre de Recherche Ouest Africain.

Friday, May 19 / Vendredi 19 Mai


9:00 – 10:30 AM. Panels concurrents/Competing Panels
Panel 21: Nationalisme et Decolonisation 2/Nationalism and Decolonization 2

Président/Chair : A. F. Clark (University of North Carolina Wilmington)

-          Aleksi Ylönen Department of Political Science and International Relations, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid: “British vs. French Masters: Distinct Post-Colonial Experiences in Sudan and Senegal”.

-          Piet Defraye, University of Alberta, “In Search of Lumumba:  Six Times a Murder”

-          Eloise Brière, “Recycling History :  Lessons from the Past?“

-          Solomon C. Madubuike, Bowen University, Osun State, Nigeria: Cultural Dislocation in African Francophone Countries: The Quest for Redefining Nationalism.

-          Yasmeen Hanoosh, The University of Michigan: The Founding Ambiguities: Origins of the Linguistic Dispute in Modern Algeria.

Panel 22: Foreign Interests, Cold War and African Decolonization/Intérêts étrangers,Guerre froide et Décolonisation en Afrique.

Président/Chair : Christopher Goscha, Université du Québec.

-          Martin Thomas, University of Exeter, UK: “Innocent Abroad? Decolonization and US Engagement with French West Africa, 1945-56“.

-          Mathilde von Bülow, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, UK: Anti-Colonialism versus Anti-Communism: West German responses to the Algerian war for independence (1954-62) “.

-          Christian Ostermann (director, Cold War International History Project, Washington DC) and Christopher Goscha (Université du Québec à Montréal): Towards a Southern View of the Cold War: Making an African Case.

-          Alexander Keese, School Of Oriental And African Studies, London: A culture of panic: The communist fear, scapegoat invention, and French decolonisation in Western Africa and the Pacific, 1945-1957.

Discussant : Dr. Peter Jackson (University of Wales).

10:30-11:00  AM. Pause
10:30 –12:30 AM. Panels concurrents

Panel 23: La France et l’Afrique Postcoloniale /France and Postcolonial Africa.

Président/Chair: Bouba Diop, UCAD, Dakar

-          Jean-Philippe Dedieu, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales: Domestiquer les lois: Les conditions de circulation et de séjour du personnel domestique africain en France (1900-2000).

-          Jibo Nura, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria: French Diplomatic Missions and Investments in the 21st century Anglophone Nigeria.

-          Julien Meimon, Centre d’Etudes et Recherches Internationales (Paris), “Porter la cause du développement.  Les anciens cadres coloniaux, de la France d’Outre-mer à la Coopération”.

-          Adam Knobler, College of New Jersey, “The Hotel as Utopie:  Creating a Safe Space in the French Colonial and post-Colonial Movement.”


Panel 24:  Displaying Colonial Knowledge:  French Museums and Africa, 1900-2000”

Président/Chair : Todd Shepard (Temple University).

-          Emmanuelle Sibeud (Université Paris VIII), “From Colonial Trophy to ‘Art Nègre’:  Scientific, political and popular uses of the African collections of the Musée d’Ethnographie du Trocadero in the 1910s”.

-          Alice Conklin (Ohio State University) “The Musée de l’Homme and the Ethnography of Empire, 1930-1945”.

-          Daniel J. Sherman (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee) “The Impossible Museum:  Creating the Musée des Arts d’Afrique et d’Océanie, 1960-1975”.

-          Stacy Holden, Purdue University, “The Political Economy of Preservationist Projects in Colonial Fez, 1912-1930.


Panel 25: Du souvenir aux lieux de mémoire: Comment inscrire l’expérience personnelle dans l’Histoire?/Personal Experience and History.

Président/Chair: Professeur Mamadou Kandji, Doyen, Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines, UCAD.

-          Sarah Davies Cordova. Associate Professor of French – Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. “Récits imaginatifs ou expressions de l’Histoire dans les écrits contemporains haïtiens?”

-          Antoinette Sol.  Associate Professor of French – University of Texas, Arlington. “L'infanticide: une marque du passé qui efface l’avenir”

-          Thierry Léger.  Associate Professor of French – Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, Georgia. “Le poids de l’Histoire chez Maryse Condé”.

-          Yves Montenay, Président d'ICEC,  ONG spécialisée en enquêtes et débats " Nord-Sud", Chargé de cours à l'ESCP-EAP, École Supérieure de Commerce de Paris : "La guerre des mémoires et l'article ‘4’ ".


1:00 – 2:30 PM. Téérou Bi Restaurant: Déjeuner / Lunch / Business Meeting. Prix 2005 Alf Andrew Heggoy with/avec Recipient/Récipiendaire Londa Schiebinger.

Président /Chair: Robert DuPlessis, President FCHS.

Comments/Commentaires:  presentation on Schiebinger's book and announcement of the 2006 winner; by Sue Peabody, Vice President of FCHS, Associate Professor of History Washington State University Vancouver.


3:00 – 4:30 PM. Séance Plénière UCAD II/Plenary Session UCAD II

Panel 26: Hommage aux Tirailleurs Sénégalais /Tribute to the  Tirailleurs Sénégalais

Président/Chair :  Pr. Assane SECK, ancien tirailleur, ancien Ministre d’État du Sénégal.

-          Dr. Ruth Ginio, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, A reflection of colonial contradictions: the tirailleurs sénégalais in the interwar period.

-          Sarah Zimmerman, University of California at Berkeley, "Cultural and Racial Re-Invention :  Tirailleurs Sénégalais in the Maghrib"

-          Joe Lunn, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Caste, Class, and Ethnicity in Colonial Senegal: Five Wolof Soldiers’ Oral Histories from the Great War.

-          Dick Van Galen, The Netherlands Institute for War Documentation, Amsterdam: "The Black Horror on the Rhine campaign and its legacy. The tirailleurs sénégalais in twentieth century Europe. A Powerpoint Presentation".

4:30-5:00 PM. Pause

5:00-6:30 PM. Projection de documentaire/Screening of a documentary. "Oubliés et Trahis : Les Prisonniers de Guerre Coloniaux et Nord-Africains" (55 minutes). Par Armell Mabon, Université Bretagne Sud Lorient:


6 :30-7:30 PM. Conférence de Clôture/Final Lecture. "Savoirs Interdits en Situation Coloniale: la Censure en AOF".

Conférencier/Speaker : Pr. Ibrahima Thioub, UCAD, Dakar. 

Président/Chair: Pr. Iba Der Thiam, Historien, UCAD, Dakar, Vice Président Assemblée Nationale du Sénégal.

10 :00 PM. Optional outing at the Jazz Club Just 4 U. Spicy food, live band, spirits, and softies.






Saturday, May 20 / Samedi 20 Mai


  9:00 AM. Départ pour Gorée

10:00-12:00 AM. Visite de la Maison des Esclaves, Musée dela Femme, et Musée Historique.

12:00 – 2:00  PM. Déjeuner / Lunch at Le Ňiiwa

  2:00 PM. Retour à Dakar.

  2:30 PM. Départ pour St. Louis (about 4 hours). Optional outing. 


Sunday, May 21 / Dimanche 21 Mai


10:00-12:00 AM. Visite of St. Louis

12:00-2:00 PM. Déjeuner / Lunch à St. Louis

  3:00 PM. Retour à Dakar