In the wake of the November 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris, many colleagues spoke out about the attacks themselves, as well as the public and policy responses to them, in newspaper op-eds, blog posts, and other essays. Their work put the attacks in historical perspective, in relationship to the histories of French colonialism in the Middle East, of French republicanism and Islam, of immigration and multiculturalism, of French foreign policy, of Paris, and more.
The Paris Syllabus initiative aims to build on these efforts by collecting and organizing more in-depth resources for educators who want to discuss the recent events with their students. In short, to fight ignorance, punditry, and abuses of history by making available to teachers at all levels a reliable bibliography of materials that the authors of these op-eds, blog posts, and essays draw on themselves.
The project is inspired by the mobilization of colleagues in African-American and US history in the wake of the protests in Ferguson, Missouri in 2014 and the terrible attack on Charleston, SC’s Emanuel AME Church in June 2015. Using the Twitter hashtags #Fergusonsyllabus and #Charlestonsyllabus, their efforts created rich bibliographies and sparked ongoing, informed public discussion of the histories of race relations, violence, identity, and inequality in the United States.
We hope that colleagues will share relevant books, articles, novels, films, websites, and other resources on Twitter using the hashtag #Parissyllabus or to email suggestions to firstname.lastname@example.org.
The syllabus is an evolving project. We welcome all suggestions.
Judt, Tony. Postwar: A History of Europe since 1945. Penguin, 2006.
Owen, Roger. State, Power and Politics in the Making of the Modern Middle East. 3rd ed., Routledge, 2004.
History of Paris
Boittin, Jennifer. Colonial Metropolis: The Urban Grounds of Anti-Imperialism and Feminism in Interwar Paris. University of Nebraska Press, 2010.
Goebel, Michael. Anti-Imperial Metropolis: Interwar Paris and the Seeds of Third World Nationalism. Cambridge, 2015.
Harvey, David. Paris: Capital of Modernity. Routledge, 2003.
Jones, Colin. Paris: The Biography of a City. Viking, 2005.
Packer, George. “The Other France: Are the Suburbs of Paris Incubators of Terrorism?” The New Yorker, 31 Aug 2015.
Schwartz, Vanessa. Spectacular Realities: Early Mass Culture in Fin-de-Siècle Paris. University of California, 1999.
Schwartz, Vanessa and Philip Ethington, eds. “Urban Icons Project,” a special issue of Urban History, May, 2006.
Seigel, Jerrold. Bohemian Paris: Culture, Politics, and the Boundaries of Bourgeois Life. Viking, 1986.
Stovall, Tyler. The Rise of the Paris Red Belt. University of California, 1990.
Stovall, Tyler. Paris Noir: African Americans in the City of Light. Houghton Mifflin, 1996.
Stovall, Tyler. “From Red Belt to Black Belt: Race, Class, and Urban Marginality in Twentieth-Century Paris,” L’Esprit Créateur 41, no. 3 (2001): 9-23.
2005 Banlieue Protests
Cole, Joshua. “Understanding the French Riots of 2005: What historical context for the ‘crise des banlieues’?,” Francophone Postcolonial Studies 5:2 (Autumn/Winter 2007), pp. 69-100.
Sahlins, Peter, ed. Riots in France. SSRC, 2005.
Thénault, Sylvie. “L’état d’urgence (1955-2005). De l’Algérie coloniale à la France contemporaine: destin d’une loi,” Le Mouvement social 218 (2007): 63-78.
Tshimana, Charles, Didier Gondola, and Peter Bloom, eds. Frenchness and the African Diaspora: Identity and Uprising in Contemporary France. Indiana University Press, 2009.
Migration in France
Aissaoui, Rabah. Immigration and National Identity: North African Political Movements in Colonial and Postcolonial France. I.B. Taurus, 2009
Byrnes, Melissa. “Liberating the Land or Absorbing a Community: Managing North African Migration and the Bidonvilles in Paris’s Banlieues,” French Politics, Culture & Society, 31: 3 (2013): 1-20.
Jules-Rosette, Bennetta. Black Paris: The African Writers’ Landscape. University of Illinois, 2000.
Lewis, Mary Dewhurst. The Boundaries of the Republic: Migrant Rights and the Limits of Universalism in France, 1918-1940. Stanford UP, 2007.
Lyons, Amelia. The Civilizing Mission in the Metropole: Algerian Families and the French Welfare State. Stanford, 2013.
MacMaster, Neil. Colonial Migrants and Racism: Algerians in France, 1900-62. MacMillan, 1997.
Noiriel, Gérard. The French Melting Pot: Immigration, Citizenship, and National Identity. Trans. Geoffroy de Fourcade, Minnesota, 1996.
Rosenberg, Clifford. Policing Paris: The Origins of Modern Immigration Control Between the Wars. Cornell UP, 2006.
Sayad, Abdelmalek. The Suffering of the Immigrant (1999). Trans. David Macey. Polity, 2004.
Silverstein, Paul. Algeria in France: Transpolitics, Race, and Nation. Indiana UP, 2004.
Ticktin, Miriam. Casualties of Care: Immigration and the Politics of Humanitarianism in France. University of California Press, 2011.
Islam in France
Bowen, John. Why the French Don’t Like Headscarves: Islam, the State, and Public Space. Princeton UP, 2007.
Bowen, John. Can Islam be French? Pluralism and Pragmatism in a Secularist State. Princeton UP, 2011.
Brulard, Inès. “Laïcité and Islam,” in Sheila Perry, ed., Aspects of Contemporary France. London and New York: Routledge, 1997, pp 175-190.
Coller, Ian. Arab France: Islam and the Making of Modern Europe. University of California Press, 2010.
Davidson, Naomi. Only Muslim: Embodying Islam in Twentieth-Century France. Cornell UP, 2012.
Fredette, Jennifer. Constructing Muslims in France: Discourse, Public Identity and the Politics of Citizenship. Temple UP, 2014.
Hargreaves, Alec. “French Muslims and the Middle East,” Contemporary French Civilization 40, no. 2 (July 2015): 235-254.
Jouili, Jeanette. Pious Practice and Secular Constraints: Women in the Islamic Revival in Europe. Stanford, 2015.
Katz, Ethan. The Burdens of Brotherhood: Jews and Muslims from North Africa to France. Harvard UP, 2015.
Scott, Joan. The Politics of the Veil. Princeton UP, 2010.
Race, Religion, and Cultural Diversity in France
Arkin, Kimberly. Rhinestones, Religion and the Republic: Fashioning Jewishness in France. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013.
Begag, Azouz. Ethnicity and Equality: France in the Balance. Bison Books, 2007.
Bertaux, Sandrine. “Towards the unmaking of the French mainstream: the empirical turn in immigrant assimilation and the making of Frenchness,” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies (2016).
Dimier, Véronique. “French Secularism in Debate: Old Wine in New Bottles,” French Politics, Culture and Society 26, no. 1 (Spring 2008): 92–110.
Dubois, Laurent. Soccer Empire: The World Cup and the Future of France. University of California, 2010.
Fanon, Frantz. Black Skin, White Masks (1952). Revised ed., Grove Books, 2007.
Fernando, Myanthi. The Republic Unsettled: Muslim French and the Contradictions of Secularism. Duke, 2014.
Fleming, Crystal Marie. Resurrecting Slavery: Racial Legacies and White Supremacy in France. Temple University Press, forthcoming 2017.
Germain, Felix. Decolonizing the Republic: African and Caribbean Migrants in Postwar Paris, 1946-1974. Michigan State University Press, 2016.
Hargreaves, Alec. Multi-Ethnic France: Immigration, Politics, Culture and Society, 2nd ed. New York and London: Routledge, 2007.
Keaton, Trica Danielle, T.Denean Sharpley-Whiting and Tyler Stovall, eds. Black France/France Noire: The History and Politics of Blackness. Duke UP, 2012.
Mandel, Maud S. Muslims and Jews in France: History of a Conflict. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2014.
Roitman, Janet, ed. “Racial France,” special issue of Public Culture vol 23 no.1 (Winter 2011).
Thomas, Dominic. Black France: Colonialism, Immigration, and Transnationalism. Indiana UP, 2006.
Islam, Race, and Cultural Diversity in Europe
Akan, Murat. “Laicité and Multiculturalism: The Stasi Report in Context,” British Journal of Sociology 60 no. 2 (2009): 237–256.
Bowen, John. Blaming Islam. MIT Press, 2012.
Bowen, John et al, eds. European States and their Muslim Citizens: The Impact of Institutions on Perceptions and Boundaries. Cambridge UP, 2015.
Buruma, Ian. Murder in Amsterdam: Liberal Europe, Islam and the Limits of Tolerance. Penguin, 2007.
Hunter, Shireen, ed. Islam, Europe’s Second Religion: The New Social, Cultural, and Political Landscape. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
Kastoryano, Riva. “France, Germany and Islam: Negotiating Identities,” Immigrants and Minorities 22 no.2-3 (2003), 280-297.
Stoddard, E. & G. Cornwell, eds. Global Multiculturalism: Comparative Perspectives on Ethnicity, Race, and Nation. Rowan & Littlefield, 2000.
Witte, Rob. Racist Violence and the State. A Comparative Analysis of Britain, France, and the Netherlands. Routledge, 1996.
Yilmaz, Ferruh. How the Workers Became Muslim: Immigration, Culture, and Hegemonic Transformation in Europe. University of Michigan Press, forthcoming 2016.
Empire and Colonialism in North Africa and the Middle East
Bunton, Martin. The Palestinian-Israeli Conflict: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, 2013.
Campos, Michelle. Ottoman Brothers: Muslims, Christians, and Jews in Early Twentieth-Century Palestine. Stanford, 2010.
Evans, Martin. Algeria: France’s Undeclared War. Oxford, 2012.
Fitzgerald, Edward. “France’s Middle Eastern Ambitions, the Sykes-Picot Negotiations, and the Oil Fields of Mosul, 1915-1918,” Journal of Modern History 66, no. 4 (1994): 697-725.
Khuri-Makdisi, Ilham. The Eastern Mediterranean and the Making of Global Radicalism, 1860-1914. University of California, 2013.
McMeekin, Sean. The Ottoman Endgame: War, Revolution, and the Making of the Modern Middle East, 1908-1928. Penguin, 2015.
Mitchell, Timothy. Colonising Egypt. University of California, 1991.
Pedersen, Susan. The Guardians: The League of Nations and the Crisis of Empire. Oxford, 2015.
Robinson, Shira. Citizen Strangers: Palestinians and the Birth of Israel’s Liberal Settler State. Stanford, 2013.
Schayegh, Cyrus and Andrew Arsan. The Routledge Handbook of the Middle East Mandates. Routledge, 2015.
Said, Edward. Orientalism. Vintage, 1979.
Satia, Priya. Spies in Arabia: The Great War and the Cultural Foundations of Britain’s Covert Empire in the Middle East. Oxford, 2009.
Shepard, Todd. The Invention of Decolonization: The Algerian War and the Remaking of France. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006.
Thomas, Martin. Empires of Intelligence: Security Services and Colonial Disorder after 1914. California, 2007.
Thompson, Elizabeth. Colonial Citizens: Republican Rights, Paternal Privilege, and Gender in French Syria and Lebanon. Columbia, 2000.
Trumbull, George. An Empire of Facts: Colonial Power, Cultural Knowledge, and Islam in Algeria, 1870-1914. Cambridge, 2009.
Watenpaugh, Keith. Bread from Stones: The Middle East and the Making of Modern Humanitarianism. University of California, 2015.
Wilder, Gary. The French Imperial Nation-State: Negritude and Colonial Humanism between the Two World Wars. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
Histories of North Africa and the Middle East
Beinen, Joen and Frédéric Varel, eds. Social Movements, Mobilization, and Contestation in the Middle East and North Africa, 2nd ed. Stanford UP, 2013.
Khalidi, Rashid. Resurrecting Empire: Western Footprints and America’s Perilous Path in the Middle East. Beacon Press, 2005.
Le Sueur, James. Algeria since 1989: Between Terror and Democracy. Zed Books, 2010.
Miller, Susan Gilson. A History of Modern Morocco. Cambridge, 2013.
Owen, Roger. The Rise and Fall of Arab Presidents for Life. Harvard, 2012.
Perkins, Kenneth. A History of Modern Tunisia, 2nd ed. Cambridge, 2014.
Smith, Charles. Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 5th ed. Bedford St. Martin’s, 2004.
Stacher, Joshua. Adaptable Autocrats: Regime Power in Egypt and Syria. Stanford, 2012.
Chabal, Emile. A Divided Republic: Nation, State, and Citizenship in Contemporary France. Cambridge UP, 2015.
Eldridge, Claire. ” ‘We’ve never had a voice’: memory construction and the children of the harkis (1962–1991).” French History (2009) 23 (1), 88-107.
Hargreaves, Alec and Mark McKinney. Post-Colonial Cultures in France. Routledge, 1997.
Hargreaves, Alec, ed. Memory, Empire and Postcolonialism: Legacies of French Colonialism. Routledge, 2005.
Rothberg, Michael. Multidirectional Memory: Remembering the Holocaust in the Age of Decolonization. Stanford, 2009.
Terrorism and Political Violence in Europe
Andress, David. The Terror: The Merciless War for Freedom in Revolutionary France. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005.
Baumann, Bommi. How It All Began: The Personal Account of a West German Urban Guerrilla. Trans. Helen Ellenbogen, Arsenal Pulp Press, 2002.
Dartnell, Michael. “Alias ‘GBGPGS’: Action directe internationale’s transition from revolutionary terrorism to euro-terrorism,” Terrorism and Political violence, 9, no. 4 (1997): 33-57.
Fanon, Frantz. “On Violence” (1961), in The Wretched of the Earth. Trans. Richard Philcox, Grove Press, 2005.
Gough, Hugh. The Terror in the French Revolution, 2nd ed. Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
Hanshew, Karrin. Terror and Democracy in West Germany. Cambridge, 2012.
House, Jim and Neil MacMaster. Paris 1961: Algerians, State Terror, and Memory. Oxford, 2009.
Kelleher, William. Troubles in Ballybogoin: Memory and Identity in Northern Ireland. University of Michigan Press, 2004.
Laqueur, Walter. A History of Terrorism. Transactions, 2001.
Melzer, Patricia. Death in the Shape of a Young Girl: Women’s Political Violence in the Red Army Faction. NYU Press, 2015.
Miller, Martin. The Foundations of Modern Terrorism: State, Society and the Dynamics of Political Violence. Cambridge, 2013.
Slobodian, Quinn. Foreign Front: Third World Politics in Sixties West Germany. Duke University Press, 2012.
Sullivan, John. ETA and Basque Nationalism: The Fight for Euskadi, 1890-1986. Routledge, 1988.
Varon, Jeremy. Bringing the War Back Home: The Weather Underground, the Red Army Faction, and Revolutionary Violence in the Sixties and Seventies. University of California, 2004.
Islamism, Al-Qaeda, and ISIS/Daesh
Atwan, Abdel Bari. Islamic State: The Digital Caliphate. University of California Press, 2015.
Cockburn, Patrick. The Rise of Islamic State. Verso, 2015.
ISIS. Special issue of Middle East Report 45, no. 276 (Fall 2015).
Kepel, Gilles. Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Harvard UP, 2006.
Kepel, Gilles. Beyond Terror and Martyrdom: The Future of the Middle East. Harvard UP, 2008.
Laqueur, Walter, ed. Voices of Terror: Manifestos, Writings and Manuals of Al Qaeda, Hamas and Other Terrorists from around the World and throughout the Ages. Reed, 2004.
Li, Darryl. “A Jihadism Anti-Primer,” Middle East Report 45, no. 276 (Fall 2015).
McCants, William. “How ISIl Out-Terrorized Bin Laden,” Politico, 19 Aug 2015.
McCants, William. The ISIS Apocalypse. The History, Strategy, and Doomsday Vision of the Islamic State. Bloomsbury, 2015.
Nesser, Petter. Islamist Terrorism in Europe: A History. Hurst, 2014.
Roy, Olivier. Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah. Columbia UP, 2004.
Roy, Olivier. “What is the driving force behind jihadist terrorism? A scientific perspective on the causes/circumstances of joining the scene,” paper presented at the Bundeskriminalamt Autumn Conference, 18-29 Nov 2015. [N.B. Link downloads .PDF file]
Schennib, Farrah. “The Islamic State Diary: A Chronicle of a Life in Libyan Purgatory,” ed. and trans. Susanne Koelbl und Salah Ngab, Spiegel Online International, 4 Sept 2015.
Allouache, Merzak, dir., Bab El Oued City, 1994.
Audiard, Jacques, dir., A Prophet, 2009.
Beauvois, Xavier, dir., Of Gods and Men, 2010.
Bouchareb, Rachid, dir., Days of Glory, 2006.
Bouchareb, Rachid, dir., Outside the Law, 2010.
El Arbi, Adil and Bilall Fallah, Image. Eyeworks Films, 2014. (More information)
Haneke, Michael, dir., Caché, 2005.
Kassovitz, Mathieu, dir., Hate, 1995.
Lakhdar-Hamina, Mohammed, dir., Chronicle of the Years of Fire, 1975.
Morel, Pierre, dir., District B13, 2004.
Pontecorvo, Gillo, dir., The Battle of Algiers, 1966.
Sciamma, Céline, dir., Girlhood, 2014.
“The New Reality of Being Young, French, and Muslim,”
PBS Newshour, 21 Nov 2015.
“Young, Muslim, and French,”Wide Angle, 26 Aug 2004.
Novels and Plays
Ben Jelloun, Tahar. Leaving Tangier: A Novel. Trans. Linda Coverdale. Penguin, 2009.
Papini, Jo. Nous on vit là (play). L’Harmattan, 2014.
Salih, Tayeb. Season of Migration to the North. Trans. Denys Johnson-Davies. NYRB Classics, 2009.
Grand Corps Malade, “Saint-Denis”, 2013.
Bérurier Noir, “Mourir à Paris”, 2015.
Suzanne Daley, “Giving Voice to France’s Poorest Youth, With Rhymes and Beats,”New York Times, 20 January 2016.
Charlie Hebdo Attacks of January 2015
Bowen, John, et al. “Forum: France After Charlie Hebdo,” Boston Review, 3 Mar 2015.
Davis, Muriam Haleh, “‘A Distinctly French Universalism’: Translating Laïcité After Charlie,” Jadaliyya, 26 Jan 2015.
Goldhammer, Arthur. “Let’s not Sacralize Charlie Hebdo,”Al-Jazeera, 27 Jan 2015.
“Je Suis Musulman: European Muslims after Charlie Hebdo.” Special feature of CritCom Forum, 11 Aug 2015.
Katz, Ethan. “The Multi-Ethnic France That is Under Attack,” Marginalia, 17 Feb 2015.
Katz, Ethan and Maud Mandel. “Strange Journey: A Reply to Schmuel Trigano,” Jewish Review of Books, Summer 2015.
Lilla, Mark. “France on Fire,” New York Review of Books, 5 Mar 2015.
Lilla, Mark. “France: A Strange Defeat.” Review of Éric Zemmour, Le Suicide français. New York Review of Books, 19 Mar 2015.
Walton, Charles. “When ‘Free Speech’ Becomes a Kind of Fundamentalism,” The Conversation, 8 Jan 2015.
“L’Apero de Gerard Biard,” [Editor-in-Chief], Charlie Hebdo, 14 January 2015, (p. 2-3) [Sarah Hanley translation].
Writing in wake of the assassination of twelve targeted cartoonists and five bystanders about the need to solve “grave” social and political issues in France, Gerard Biard states as follows in Charlie Hebdo. “Fortunately there exist several tools to try and solve these serious problems, but they are all ineffective if one is missing: [that is] laicite [secularism]. Not laicite positive, not laicite inclusive, not laicite-je-ne-sais-quo, [but] laicite period. It alone permits, because it advocates universal rights, the exercise of equality, of liberty, of fraternity, of sorority. It alone permits full liberty of conscience, liberty that restrains…all religions when they leave the strictly private terrain in order to descend upon the political terrain. It alone permits, ironically, believers and others to live in peace.” …”The millions of anonymous persons, all the institutions, all the heads of State and of government, all the political personalities, intellectuals and mediators, all the religious dignitaries who, this week, have proclaimed “Je suis Charlie” must understand that this [slogan] also means “I am laicite [secularism]” (p. 3). [S.H. translation].
Responses to 13 November Attacks
Byman, Daniel. “What do the Paris attacks tell us about foreign fighters?” Washington Post, 16 Nov 2015.
Byrnes, Melissa. “Solidarity and ‘Je suis Paris,'” Lawyers, Guns & Money, 18 Nov 2015.
Byrnes, Melissa. “Saint-Denis, Solidarity, and Security,” Lawyers, Guns & Money, 3 Dec 2015.
Campbell, Caroline. “A Postcard from Paris: Rejecting the Idea of ‘Civilizational Crisis’ after the Attacks of November 13,” North Dakota Quarterly, 19 November 2015.
Chabal, Emile. “Hope and Clarity in Paris,” The Hindu, 18 Nov 2015.
Cohen, Paul. “When Terror Strikes Urban Geographies of Hope,” Spacing, 19 Nov 2015.
Coller, Ian. “Why Paris?” The Conversation, 16 Nov 2015.
Fredette, Jennifer. “The Islamic State’s attacks on Paris were attacks on Muslims, too,” Washington Post, 16 Nov 2015.
Howeidy, Amira. “Debating Islam after Paris,” Ahram Online, 19 Nov 2015.
Hussey, Andrew. “After the Paris attacks, life goes on in the sleepless, grieving and edgy city,” New Statesman, 18 November 2015.
Kian, Azadeh. “Some Thoughts on November 13 and After,” MERIP Blog, 20 Nov 2015.
Murray-Miller, Gavin. “The Paris Attacks and France’s Republican Tradition,” History Today, 17 Nov 2015.
Packer, George. “French Muslims in a Time of War,” The New Yorker (Daily Comment), 17 Nov 2015.
humanit%C3%A9-nulle-part”>”Terreur partout, humanité nulpart,” Jadiliyya, 17 Nov 2015.
Serres, Thomas. “Terror Everywhere, Humanity Nowhere,” Jadaliyya, 21 Nov 2015.
Surkis, Judith. “A Muslim Future to Come?” Review of Michel Houellebecq, Submission. Public Books, 18 Nov 2015.
Press Coverage and Public Discourse
Davis, Muriam Haleh. “A Moveable Feast? Reflections on the French Coverage of the Paris Attacks,” Jadaliyya, 27 Nov 2015.
el Sarraj, Wassem. “From Paris to Palestine: The Psychology of Solidarity,” Middle East Eye, 18 November 2015.
Humphries, Mark. “The Paris Attacks and the Abuse of History,” Gorffennol. The Swansea University History and Classics Online Student Research Blog, 17 Nov 2015.
Vince, Natalya. “Dangerous Shortcuts: Paris Attacks and the War of Independence,” Textures du temps, 22 Nov 2015.
State of Emergency Law
Anderson, Grey. “The French Emergency,” Jacobin Magazine, 24 Nov 2015.
Goodman, Amy. “Thousands Defy Paris State of Emergency, Protest Ban to Sound the Alarm on Global Climate Crisis,”Democracy Now, 30 November 2015.
Fontaine, Darcie. “Temporary Migrants or Permanent Immigrants: France’s Long ‘Migrant Crisis,'” The Reluctant Internationalists Blog: A History of Public Health and International Organizations, Movements and Experts in Twentieth-Century Europe, 16 Nov 2015.
Terrorism in France
Bourg, Julian. “Paris in Terror: France’s Long History of Political Violence,” Boston Review, 3 Dec 2015.
Millington, Chris. “Paris attacks: France has long been a target of extreme terror factions,” The Conversation, 15 Nov 2015.
Memory and Commemoration
Alissa Rubin, “Comment vivre avec les traces des des attentats?”New York Times, 12 November 2016.
“Comment vivre avec les traces des des attentats?” France Culture, 14 March 2016.
Life for Paris, 13 novembre 2015, Association of Victims, Victims’ Families and Helpers of 13 November Attacks.
The Broader European Context
“Can Europe Make It?”, OpenDemocracy. Collection of essays by a number of leading European intellectuals who offer perspectives from across Europe.
Ferguson, Niall. “Like the Roman Empire, Europe has let its defenses crumble,” The Sunday Times (London), 15 Nov 2015.
Goebel, Michael. “Blame Games,” OpenDemocracy, 19 Nov 2015.
Keohane, Daniel. “The Unbearable Lightness of European Defense,” Judy Dempsey’s Strategic Europe, 24 November 2015.
Malik, Kenan. “Terrorism has come about in assimilationist France and also in multicultural Britain. Why is that?” The Guardian, 14 Nov 2015.
Unigwe, Chika, “The Near-Impossibility of Assimilation in Belgium,” New York Times Magazine, 25 Nov 2015.
Lalami, Leila. “My Life as a Muslim in the West’s Grey Zone,” New York Times Magazine, 20 Nov 2015.
Pouchter, Jacob. “In nations with significant Muslim populations, much disdain for ISIS,” Pew Research Center, 17 November 2015.
Middle East/Syria Conflict
Graeber, David. “Turkey Could Cut Off the Islamic State’s Supply Lines. So Why Doesn’t It?” Jadaliyya, 20 Nov 2015.
Klein, Ezra. “Syria’s War: A 5-Minute Introduction,” 14 October 2015
Üstündağ, Nazan. “New Wars and Autonomous Self-Defense,” Jadiliyya, 18 Nov 2015.
Yaffa, Joshua. “Putin’s Ambitions for the War Against ISIS,” The New Yorker, 18 Nov 2015.
Zaretsky, Robert. “French Gaullists and the Last War,” The American Conservative, November 18, 2015.
Atran, Scott and Nafees Hamid. “Paris: The War ISIS Wants,” New York Review of Books, 16 Nov 2015.
Beauchamp, Zack. “ISIS, a history: How the World’s Worst Terror Group Came to be,” Vox World, 19 November 2015.
Cole, Juan. “Is Daesh/iSIL a modern Raiding Pirate state,” Informed Comment, 16 Nov 2015.
Conway, Martin. “What is it about Molenbeek? The bit of Belgium that was a base for Paris terror attacks,” The Conversation, 20 Nov 2015.
Daoud, Kamel. “Saudi Arabia, an ISIS That Has Made It,” New York Times, 20 Nov 2015.
Hamid, Shadi. “Does ISIS really have nothing to do with Islam? Islamic apologetics carry serious risks,” Washington Post, 18 Nov 2015.
Hénin, Nicolas. “I was held hostage by ISIS. They fear our unity more than our airstrikes,” The Guardian (London), 16 Nov 2015.
Lizza, Ryan. “ISIS, Terrorist Sanctuaries, and the Lessons of 9/11,” New Yorker, 19 Nov 2015.
McCoy, Terrence. “Camp Bucca: The US prison that became the birthplace of ISIS,” The Independent (London), 4 November 2014.
McLaughlin, Jenna. “Was Iraq’s Top Terrorist Radicalized at a US-Run Prison?” Mother Jones, 11 Jul 2014.
Mishra, Pankraj. “How to Think About Islamic State,” The Guardian, 24 Jul 2015.
Peterson, Terrence. “ISIS Counts on Anger Over Paris to Advance Its Cause,” Huffington Post, 17 November 2015.
Reuter, Christoph. “The Terror Strategist: Secret Files Reveal the Structure of Islamic State,” Spiegel Online International, 18 April 2015.
Shatz, Adam. “Laptop Jihad,” review of Brynjar Lia, Architect of Global Jihad: The Life of Al-Qaida Strategist Abu Musab al-Suri, New York Review of Books, 30, no. 6, 20 Mar 2008.
Shatz, Adam. “Magical Thinking about ISIS,” London Review of Books, 37, no. 3, 3 Dec 2015.